Example 1: Evolving a virus
In this study evolutionists investigated how proteins might have evolved. They attempted to demonstrate the evolution of a virus—a molecular machine consisting of several proteins—in the laboratory. To simplify the problem they started with all but a small part of the virus intact. They randomized the amino acid sequence of one part of one of the viral proteins, and they repeatedly evolved that randomized segment in hopes of reconstructing the entire virus.
What they discovered was that the evolutionary process could produce only tiny improvements to the virus’ ability to infect a host. Their evolved sequences showed no similarity to the native sequence which is supposed to have evolved. And the best virus they could produce, even with the vast majority of the virus already intact, was several orders of magnitude weaker than nature’s virus.
The reason their evolutionary process failed was that the search for better amino acid sequences, that would improve the virus’ ability to infect the host, became too difficult. A possible evolutionary explanation for these disappointing results is that in such a limited laboratory study, the evolutionists were simply unable to reproduce what the vast resources of nature could produce. Perhaps in the course of time evolution could evolve what the evolutionists could not do in the laboratory.
But the results refuted even this fall back explanation. In fact, the evolutionists would not merely need an expanded study with more time in the laboratory, they would need more time than evolution ever had—many times over. The number of experiments they would need to conduct in order to have any hope of evolving a virus that rivals nature’s version is difficult to compute. But it is at least 10^70 (a one followed by 70 zeros).
And yet, there it is. This relatively short sequence of amino acids exists as part of of the virus, with its fantastically high infection capabilities. And of course this is not merely a problem for a part of one protein, in one virus. It is a problem for all life, for proteins are crucial molecular machines throughout biology.
Did the evolutionists conclude that proteins did not evolve? Did they suggest their findings are a problem for evolution? Did they even do so little as discuss the possibility that this one particular protein they studied may not have evolved?
No. There is not even a hint from the evolutionists there is a problem. In fact, the results are, in typical fashion, interpreted according to evolution. As usual, the evolutionists simply explained that evolution must have, somehow, solved the problem:
Such a huge search is impractical and implies that evolution of the wild-type phage must have involved not only random substitutions but also other mechanisms, such as homologous recombination.
But other mechanisms, such as homologous recombination, do not help. Homologous recombination, or any other mechanism that evolutionists can imagine, does not provide some ingenious end around the problem. Evolution cannot somehow brilliantly find the one in 10^70 long shot. The evolutionists rosy report is not data-driven, but theory-driven.
Example 2: Evolving a simple function
In this study evolutionists attempted to evolve a protein that binds to a simple, common chemical group. This function is so simple even random polypeptides sometimes have slight binding affinities. Using their laboratory process the evolutionists were able to evolve minor improvements to a random polypeptide’s binding affinity. But these small binding levels are hardly detectable. So not only is the function trivial (in order to improve fitness a protein needs to do more than merely bind to a chemical), but the levels observed are likely too small to make a difference anyway.
As with Example 1 the evolved amino acid sequences showed no similarity to nature’s sequences and when the evolutionists tried using a larger number of trials there was no sign of improved results.
Despite these feeble results the evolutionists made remarkable conclusions:
The ease of the functional development within a small sequence variety implies that enzyme evolution is prompted even within a small population of random polypeptides. … These results mark the implementation of Darwinian evolution in the system.
There is no comparison between the evolution of an enzyme and their polypeptides with minor binding affinities. And there certainly was no Darwinian evolution demonstrated in their results, for such evolution requires tangible fitness improvements which can be selected. It was good research work, but the interpretation was according to evolution.
Example 3: New genes
This example deals with new genes. When a gene is found in a large number of species, evolutionists assume it came from the common ancestor of those species, which would date far back into evolutionary history. But when a gene is found in only one or a few species, evolutionists must conclude it arose in the common ancestor of only those few species, and therefore more recently.
But how can a new gene arise so quickly? Genes that code for proteins are difficult to evolve in any case (see here and here), but the problem is accentuated when the time frame is shortened.
How a gene could have evolved is not the only problem with new genes. Such new genes, however they were supposed to have evolved, were expected to be less important. But in this study evolutionists noticed this wasn’t so.
The evolutionists compared what they assume to be new and old genes, and found no statistical difference in the importance of their functions. Knockout a new gene, and you are just as likely to kill the organism as when you knockout an old gene. In fact, the proportion of genes that are essential is similar in every assumed evolutionary age group they examined.
But once again, evolutionists do not hesitate in fitting awkward results into their framework. “These data,” the evolutionists deftly concluded, “suggest that new genes frequently and rapidly evolve essential functions and participate in development.”
In fact, outside of evolutionary theory, there is no reason to think these genes are any newer than other genes. And inside of evolutionary theory there is no scientific explanation of how proteins arise in the first place. Evolutionists are hardly in a position to assert that these data, or any other data for that matter, suggest new genes frequently and rapidly evolve, period. With little more than a bare assertion the evolutionists convert yet another unexpected finding into an evolutionary proclamation.
Evolutionists are bound to the preconceived notion that evolution must be a fact. It drives their thinking in spite of the scientific evidence, and they interpret any and all evidence in this light. It may sound crazy, but it is the theory that informs the evidence, rather than the evidence that informs the theory.