According to evolutionists, life began simple and gradually increased in complexity. Therefore early life should be simpler life. And so evolutionists have continually been surprised to find high complexity throughout the living world. As the research paper concluded:
Bacteria have long been considered simple relatives of eukaryotes. Obviously, this misperception must be modified. From the presence of a cytoskeleton to the packaging of DNA to the existence of multiple post-translational modifications, bacteria clearly implement highly sophisticated mechanisms to regulate diverse cellular processes precisely.
With evolution we now must believe that even protein acetylation miraculously appeared very early in the history of life. This would require (i) the enzymes to attach and remove the acetyl groups, (ii) the capability to attach those groups at the right place and under the right conditions, and (iii) of course right influence such that the presence of the acetyl groups produced the needed functional modification.
And all of this must have occurred spontaneously. As per evolutionary theory, the changes must have occurred at random. In other words, the need at hand could not have influenced the changes. Those astronomically unlikely, incredibly complex, changes must have arisen to create the phenomenal protein acetylation functionality, so that it then could be selected for. There is no scientific evidence for a long, gradual series of designs leading to this capability. Even for a single protein this evidence is lacking. It is yet another example of dashed expectations even in this New Age.